The flours coming from four ancient Sicilian durum wheat cultivars were used to produce spaghetti enriched with4%inulinattwodegreeofpolymerization(DP):cardoonroots(CRI,highDP)andchicory(CHI,lowDP). TheinfluenceofDPonquality,sensoryproperties,glycaemicindex(GI)ofenrichedspaghettiwasinvestigated; further the release of inulin after simulated in vitro digestion was also assessed. The DP affected most of the sensorialattributesofpastaasoverallqualityscore(OQS),cookinglossandoptimalcookingtime.Amongthe cultivars, Timilia and Margherito maintained the OQS scores after inulin addition. Both the presence and the differentDPofinulindidnotinfluencetheGIvalues,exceptadecreaserecordedforTimiliaspaghetti.Finally,in allthestudiedcultivars,DPsignificantlyaffectedtheinulinreleaseinthedigestivetracthighlightingthehighest amountofCRIinulininsolidfractionimportantforpotentialprebioticeffect.
Antonella Garbetta, Isabella D'Antuono, Maria Grazia Melilli, Carla Sillitti, Vito Linsalata, Salvatore Scandurra ,Angela Cardinali
Foodfortificationwithdietaryfibres,micronutrients,antioxidants, vitaminsormineralsisanimportantchallengetoimprovefoodquality andensurehealthbenefitsinhumandisease(Radovanovicetal.,2015). Dietary fibre, as defined by American Association of Cereal Chemists (AACC, 2000), represents the edible part of plants or analogous carbohydrates that play a key role in human health for their special features: resistance to digestion and absorption in the human small intestine withcompleteorpartialfermentation bythemicroflora inthe colon,andtheproductionandabsorptionoffermentationendproducts like short chain fatty acid and lactate (Dhingra, Michael, Rajput, & Patil,2012;Roberfroid,2005;Shoaibetal.,2016;Stephenetal.,2017). The development of dietary fibre-enriched foods permits to obtain products with functional properties (Bustos, Pérez, & León, 2011). Among the dietary fibres widely used in a variety of foods, inulin representsanoteworthyingredient;itisafructosepolymersbelongingto aclassofhighlywater-solublefibres.Itschemicalstructureconsistsby a linear or branched fructose polymers with one or more β-linked fructose.Sometimes,thelastfructosecanbelinkedwithglucose,using α-(1–2)bond. The presence of these bonds, together with the lack of
enzymes deputed to the fructans hydrolysis, avoid the digestion and absorption of inulin in the human small intestine as a dietary carbohydrate(D’Antuono,DiGioia,Linsalata,Rosskopf,&Cardinali,2018). Someinulinsources,mainlyusedinthefoodindustryarechicoryand Jerusalemartichoke(Foschia,Peressini,Sensidoni,Brennan,&Brennan, 2015).Theinulinfromchicoryismainlycomposedbyacombinationof fructose oligomers and polymers, with units ranging from 2 to 60 (Shoaib et al., 2016). Among the high molecular weight inulin (200 fructoseunits)isimportanttomentioninulinfromartichoke(external bracts, roots, and flowers) and from heads and roots of wild cardoon (Hellwege,Czapla,Jahnke,Willmitzer,&Heyer,2000;Raccuia,Melilli, & Tringali, 2004). Compared to digestible carbohydrates, inulin gives only 25–35% energy and is widely used as sugar replacer in the processed foods (Shoaib et al., 2016). Moreover, inulin for its “neutral taste” does not add off-flavor or aftertaste and can be used as a substitute for butter or margarine in bakery products, dairy products, frozen foods, and condiments (D’Antuono et al., 2018). The mixture waterinulinproducesagelatinoussolutionwithacreamytextureable tosubstituteupto100%fatsintofoods(Franck,2002).Theinterestof inulinasfunctionalfoodsisincreasingforitspotentialbeneficialeffect on humanhealthmainlyrelatedto thedegreeof polymerization(DP) and branches. Inulin belongs to the group of FODMAP (Fermentable Oligo-, Di-, Monosaccharides and Polyols), carbohydrates able to counteract constipation improving consequent illness, because its colonic digestion draws water into the last part of intestine. It also promotesthegrowthofmicrofloraindigestivetractandisconsideredasan appropriateingredienttopreparelowcaloricfoodsfordiabeticsandto managebloodsugarlevels(Shoaibetal.,2016).Thepromotinghealth effect of inulin could be combined with low glycaemic value foods to obtain functional foods. Pasta, for its compact structure characterised by very close protein network entrapping starch granules and protectingthemfromthehydrolyticactivityofdigestiveenzyme,isdefined as low or medium glycaemic index food. Therefore, pasta digestion inducesagradualriseinbloodglucoselevelsandconsequentslowinsulin release, with potential benefits for both healthy or diabetic consumers (Augustin, Franceschi, Jenkins, Kendall, & La Vecchia, 2002; Brennan & Tudorica, 2008; Foschia et al., 2015). In this contest, the promoting health effect of inulin could be combined with the low glycaemic value of pasta to obtain a functional food, because the interactionsstarch-inulincouldfurtherslowthestarchdigestionandthus lower the glycaemic response. Thus, is needed to set up correctly the amountandthetypeoffunctionalingredient(inulin)tomaintainafood quality and improve nutritional value (Rakhesh, Fellows, & Sissons, 2015). Several studies have demonstrated that the inulin fortification can modify negatively the structure of pasta compromising the acceptabilitybytheconsumersandthenutritionalaspects(Bustosetal., 2011; Padalino et al., 2017). Other authors (Rakhesh et al., 2015), shownthatinulininfluencedthestarch–proteinmatrix,allowingmore rapid access of the cooking water, gelatinizing the starch without affecting its swelling. Padalino et al., 2017 have studied the effect on quality and chemical composition of whole-meal durum wheat spaghettienrichedwithinulinattwodifferentDP,andfromtwodifferent vegetablesources.Theauthorsshownthatthesensorycharacteristicsof pastawereaffectedbyinulinmolecularweightanditsinteractionswith gluten matrix during pasta formation were significantly modified by polymerizationdegree.SicilyisoneofthefewareasofSouthernEurope whereitisstillpossibletofindlandracesofcerealsanddurumwheat. ThechangesintheUEagriculturalpolicy,theintroductionoflowinput agricultural systems,andthegreaterconsumerdesirefor foodquality havereawakenedinterestinlocaltypicalfoodproductions(Galloetal., 2010).Durumwheatlandraceshavebeenrecognizedtohavedifferent contents in health-promoting phytochemicals (Lo Bianco, Siracusa, Dattilo, Venora, & Ruberto, 2017) and vitamins (Bognanni, Gallo, Di Stefano,&Melilli,2020). InthisstudytheeffectsoftheadditionofinulinatdifferentDPon thequality,sensorypropertiesandglycaemicindexoffourwholemeal spaghetti produces by ancient Sicilian cultivars of durum wheat was evaluated.Moreover,inordertoassesshowtheDPcouldinfluencethe permanence ofinulininsmallintestine, aninvitrogastrointestinaldigestionwasalsoperformed.
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